COURSE OUTCOMES, CONTENTS, AND SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL

Water Sources

Upon completion of this course, learners will be able to:

Define…

✓ the main objective of water treatment

List…

✓ steps of the hydrologic cycle

✓ types of surface water

✓ factors affecting lake management

major sources of contamination in drinking water sources

✓ potential contaminating activities in the watershed

✓ the characteristics of an aquifer

✓ well components

✓ water rights applicable to surface water and groundwater

✓ causes of public water supply interruption

Describe…

✓ the effects of seasonal changes on water reservoirs

✓ surface water reservoir stratification

✓ public health significance of water supply interruption

Explain…

✓ how drinking water regulations are enforced

✓ groundwater under the influence of surface water

Use…

✓ well terminologies

Calculate…

✓ flow rates and water velocity

✓ volume of water in a storage facility

✓ well drawdown

✓ detention time

✓ amount of copper sulfate needed for lake treatment

✓ well specific capacity

Estimate…

✓ water level in a storage tank or reservoir

Plan…

✓ for water supply interruptions

Compare…

✓ common water units (gallons per minute to cubic feet per second, etc)

Assess…

✓ how reservoir intake level affects water quality

A.  WHY TREAT WATER     

B. SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY     

1. Surface Water     

1.a. Types of Surface Water     

1.b. Factors Affecting Lake Management     

Computations in Lakes and Reservoirs Management     

2. Groundwater     

2.a. Characteristics of Aquifer Materials     

2.b. Parts of a Well     

2.c. Well Terminologies     

2.d. Safeguards in Well Location and Construction     

Computations in Well Operation     

C. SANITARY SURVEY AND SANITARY CONSIDERATIONS     

1. Surface Water Sanitary Survey     

2. Groundwater Sanitary Survey     

D. WATER RIGHTS     

1. Surface Water Rights     

2 Groundwater Rights     

E. WATER SHORTAGES AND OUTAGES     

1. Causes of public water supply interruption     

2. Public health significance of public water supply interruption     

3. Short-term options for public water supply interruption     

4. Long-term options public water supply interruption     

5. Planning before disaster – preemptive moves.    

5.a. Surface Water Systems.     

5.b. Groundwater Systems.     

WATER SOURCES QUIZ    

Overview of Drinking Water Regulations

Upon completion of this course, learners will be able to:

List…

✓ the main points of SDWA amendments

✓ drinking water regulations in chronological order

✓ maximum contaminant levels or action levels of regulated constituents

✓ contaminants with USEPA health advisories

✓ constituents with California-specific MCLs

✓ constituents with California-exclusive secondary MCLs

✓ the requirements specified in California Waterworks Standards

Recognize…

✓ the requirements of SWTR and IESWTR

Define…

✓ public water systems

✓ MCL, MCLG, and TT

Describe…

✓ rule primacy

✓ potential health effects from exposures above the MCLs

✓ how California adopts MCLs

Explain…

✓ why SDWA was created

✓ the purpose of Stage 1 and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection By-product Rules

✓ the purpose of Lead and Copper Rule

✓ the purpose of Groundwater Rule

✓ CCL and UCMR

✓ why notification levels are established

✓ the intention of Cryptosporidium Action Plan

Identify…

✓ when SDWA was created

✓ recently established California notification levels

Interpret…

✓ water quality reports relative to drinking water regulations

Apply…

✓ the Filter Backwash Recycling Rule

Distinguish…

✓ primary and secondary drinking water standards

Assess…

✓ performance standards and removal requirements for surface water treatment

A. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT (SDWA)     

B. FEDERAL DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS     

1. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations     

1.a. Total Trihalomethanes     

1.b. Fluoride     

1.c. Phase I Standards     

1.d. Total Coliform Rule     

1.e. Surface Water Treatment Rule     

1.f. Phase II Standards     

1.g. Lead and Copper Rule     

1.h. Phase V Standards     

1.i. Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (D/DBP Rule)     

1.j. Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR)     

1.k. Radionuclides Rule     

1.l. Filter Backwash Recycling Rule     

1.m. Arsenic Rule     

1.n. Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR)     

1.o. Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (D/DBP Rule)     

1.p. Ground Water Rule     

1.q. Revisions to Lead and Copper Rule     

1.r. Airline Drinking Water Rule     

1.s. Revised Total Coliform Rule     

2. Secondary Drinking Water Regulations     

3. Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List/Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule     

C. CALIFORNIA SPECIFIC DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS     

1. California-specific MCLs     

2. Constituents with California Notification Levels     

3. California-exclusive Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCL)

4. California Waterworks Standards

5. Cryptosporidium Action Plan

OVERVIEW OF DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS QUIZ     

Water Chemistry and Microbiology

Upon completion of this course, learners will be able to:

List…

✓ the main categories of pathogenic organisms in raw water

Describe…

✓ periodic table of elements

✓ atomic structure and states of matter

✓ acids, bases and salts

✓ the presence/absence microbiological test method

✓ the Revised Total Coliform Rule

Explain…

✓ hydrogen ion concentration (pH)

Express…

✓ results in significant figures

Identify…

✓ chemicals that contribute alkalinity to water

✓ molecules, elements and compounds

✓ common microbial contaminants in raw water

Calculate…

✓ percent weight of elements in a compound

✓ dilution factors

✓ chemical solution concentration

✓ stoichiometric quantities

✓ density and specific gravity

Use…

✓ the multiple tube fermentation method for microbiological analysis of water sample

✓ the membrane filtration method for microbiological analysis of water sample

Interpret…

✓ HPC (Heterotrophic Plate Count) results

Differentiate…

✓ categories of chemical contaminants in drinking water

Distinguish…

✓ between presumptive and confirmed coliform results

Compare…

✓ approved analytical procedures for coliform analysis

Set-up…

✓ chemical formulas and equations

✓ chemical reactions

Prepare…

✓ solution dilutions

✓ chemical reagents

A. BASIC CHEMISTRY     

1. Matter     

2. Atomic Structure     

3. Periodic Table of Elements     

4. Compounds and Molecules     

5. Chemical Reactions     

5.a. Ionic Bonds     

5.b. Covalent Bonds     

6. Chemical Formulas and Chemical Equations     

7. Expression of Results and Significant Figures     

7.a. Significant Figures and Rounding Off     

8. Computation of Percent Weight of Elements in a Compound     

9. Computation of Stoichiometric Quantities     

10. Categories of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water     

11. Solutions and Computation of Percent Strength     

12. Density and Specific Gravity     

13. Mixing and Dilution     

14. Acids, Bases, and Salts     

14.a. Preparation of uniform acid and base solutions     

15. pH     

16. Alkalinity     

B. BASIC MICROBIOLOGY     

1. Pathogenic organisms     

1.a. Bacteria     

1.b. Viruses     

1.c. Protozoans     

2. Indicator organisms     

3. Revised Total Coliform Rule     

4. Coliform and Heterotrophic Plate Count Analysis     

CHAPTER 3 QUESTIONS     

Flash Mixing, Coagulation, Flocculation and Sedimentation

Upon completion of this course, learners will be able to:

Recognize…

✓  normal and abnormal floc formation

✓  abnormal conditions in a sedimentation basin

Define…

✓  Van Der Waals forces and zeta potential

Describe…

✓  the flash mixing process

✓  the coagulation and flocculation processes

✓  enhanced coagulation

✓ sedimentation basin operation

✓  the jar testing procedure

✓  the effects of tube and plate settlers

✓  the effects of sand-ballasted clarification 

Compare…

✓  chemical coagulants and coagulant aids

Interpret…

✓  velocity gradient values

✓  zeta potential values

Calculate…

✓  coagulant feed setting

✓  amount of alkalinity needed for reaction with coagulants

✓  detention time

✓  velocity gradient

✓  impeller speed

✓  power required and power imparted by mixers

✓  head loss and velocity in baffled flocculators

Set-up…

✓  a jar test

Evaluate…

✓  the effects of temperature, alkalinity and pH on flocculation

✓  abnormal conditions in a sedimentation basin

A. INTRODUCTION TO CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT  PROCESS     

B. FLASH MIXING, COAGULATION, AND FLOCCULATION     

1. Rapid/Flash Mix     

Computations in Rapid Mix Design     

2. Coagulation     

Computations in Coagulation Operation     

3. Flocculation     

Computations in Flocculator Design       

4. Sedimentation/Clarification    

Computations in Sedimentation Basin Design     

5. Sedimentation Basin Operation     

5.a. Sludge Removal System     

5.b. Basin Operation         

5.c. Monitoring the Process     

5.d. Operating problems     

5.e. Sludge disposal     

C. JAR TESTING     

Computations in Jar Testing     

1. Jar Test Example     

Flash Mixing, Coagulation, Flocculation and Sedimentation Questions     

Filtration

Upon completion of this course, learners will be able to:

List…

✓ commonly used filter media types

✓ turbidity causing colloidal matter

✓ turbidity removal requirements

✓ turbidity removal mechanisms in a filter

✓ filter control equipment

Recognize…

✓ problems in multimedia gravity filters

✓ maximum filtration rates

Explain…

✓ head loss effects on filters

✓ filter run termination profiles

Describe…

✓ modes of filter operation

✓ components of a gravity media filters

✓ backwash sequencing

✓ filter media characteristics and selection requirements

✓ air scouring and its effects

Interpret…

✓ turbidity information

Calculate…

✓ daily filter production

✓ filter production/run

✓ filter backwash rate

✓ filter aid dosage

✓ filtration rate

✓ filter loading rate

✓ unit filter run volume (UFRV)

✓ filter media effective size and L/d ratio

Analyze…

✓ filter run profile

Set-up…

✓ a filter assessment or surveillance program

Plan…

✓ a comprehensive performance evaluation

Assess…

✓ deteriorating filter performance

✓ normal and abnormal filter media conditions

A. Types of Filter     

1. Driving Force     

1.a. Gravity filters     

1.b. Pressure filters     

2. Filtration Rate and Media Types     

2.a. Slow sand filters     

2.b. Rapid sand filters     

2.c. High rate filters     

2.d. Filter media selection for gravity filters     

3. Direction of Flow     

3.a. Downflow     

3.b. Upflow     

B. Filter Operation     

1. Effluent-Controlled Constant-Rate Submerged Inlet Constant Level Filter     

2. Influent-Controlled Constant-Rate Variable Level Filter     

3. Influent-Controlled Declining-Rate Variable Level Filter     

4. Effluent-Controlled Declining-Rate Submerged Inlet Constant Level Filter

C. Filter Control Equipment     

D. Filter Run Profile     

E. Filter Backwashing     

F. Filter Operation Record Keeping     

G. Recognizing Problems in Multimedia Filter Operation     

H. Mathematics of Water Filtration     

Computations in Filter Operation

FILTRATION QUESTIONS

Disinfection

Upon completion of this course, learners will be able to:

List…

✓ common chlorine compounds used for disinfection

✓ properties of chlorine gas

✓ safety equipment used in handling chlorine gas

Define…

✓ disinfection

✓ log removal requirements for conventional treatment

Explain…

✓ disinfectant byproduct formation

✓ disinfection residual requirements

Describe…

✓ equipment and appurtenances for feeding chlorine gas

✓ chlorine chemistry

✓ chloramine chemistry

✓ breakpoint chlorination chemistry

✓ the procedure to estimate acceptable chlorine residual levels to meet CT and minimize THM formation

Calculate…

✓ log removal value and percent removal

✓ disinfectant dosage

✓ available disinfectant concentration

✓ chlorine demand and chlorine residual

✓ CT value

Apply…

✓ disinfectant byproduct reduction procedures

Use…

✓ safety precautions in handling chlorine cylinders

Compare…

✓ effectiveness of different disinfectants in meeting CT requirements

A. Log inactivation or Log Removal     

1. Relationship between Log Removal and Percent Removal     

B. Log Removal Requirements for Conventional Water Treatment     

1. SWTR/IESWTR Log Removal Requirements     

C. Determining CT Compliance for Chlorine Disinfection     

1. Calculation of CT Ratio     

D. Chlorine Chemistry     

1. Chlorine Gas     

2. Hypochlorite     

3. Control Tests     

E. Properties of chlorine gas     

F. Safety precautions in handling chlorine gas cylinders     

1. Safety precautions in handling 150 lb cylinders     

2. Safety precautions in handling ton (2,000 lb) cylinders     

G. Equipment and Appurtenances for Feeding Chlorine Gas     

H. Safety Equipment     

    1. Proper Safety procedures     

I. Chloramination     

J. Breakpoint chlorination   

K. Computations: Mathematics of Chlorination     

DISINFECTION QUESTIONS     

Drinking Water Quality Monitoring for Regulatory Compliance

Upon completion of this course, learners will be able to:

List…

✓ drinking water quality parameters that require monitoring and reporting

Describe…

✓ laboratory quality assurance program

✓ laboratory safety practices

Explain…

✓ drinking water laboratory certification process

✓ sample holding times

Identify…

✓ routine sampling requirements

Interpret…

✓ water quality characteristics

✓ water quality reports

✓ Maximum Contaminant Levels

Use…

✓ chain of custody

✓ proper sampling and preservation techniques

Prepare…

✓ an operational site sampling plan

Manage…

✓ a regulatory compliance program

Set-up…

✓ appropriate sample containers and sample sizes

Select…

✓ a proper sampling site

Evaluate…

✓ treatment facility performance

A. Laboratory Certification     

B. Quality Assurance and Quality Control     

C. Collection and Preservation of Water Samples     

1. Types of Samples     

2. Chain-of-Custody Procedures     

3. Sampling Methods     

4. Sample Containers     

5. Number of Samples     

6. Sample Volumes     

7. Sample Preservation and Storage     

D. General Sample Collection Requirements     

E. Water Quality Parameters     

1. Physical and Aggregate Properties     

1.a. Temperature     

1.b. Color     

1.c. Taste, Flavor, and Odor     

1.d. Turbidity     

1.e. Particle Counting and Size Distribution     

1.f. Specific Conductance     

1.g. Alkalinity     

1.h. Hardness     

1.i. Asbestos     

1.j. Solids     

2. Inorganic Constituents     

2.a. Determining correctness of analysis     

2.b. pH     

3. Organic Contaminants     

4. Microorganisms     

5. Radionuclides     

F. Treatment Process Monitoring     

1. Process Control Parameters     

2. Langelier Saturation Index     

G. Laboratory Safety     

DRINKING WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT PROCESS MONITORING QUESTIONS     

Specific Water Treatment Processes

Upon completion of this course, learners will be able to:

List…

✓ major contributing constituents to water hardness

Describe…

✓ iron and manganese removal techniques

✓ iron and manganese oxidation chemistry

✓ chemical softening processes

✓ Ion Exchange softening processes

Explain…

✓ problems created by hard water

Recognize…

✓ iron and manganese problem in treated water

Calculate…

✓ hardness removal capacity of ion exchange resin

✓ ion exchange bypass flow rate

✓ amount of salt needed for ion exchange regeneration

✓ volume of water produced by ion exchange softening

✓ ion exchange resin service cycle time

A. Iron and Manganese Removal     

1. Precipitation     

2. Ion Exchange     

3. Lime-Soda Ash Softening     

4. Sequestration     

B. Water Softening     

1. Chemical Softening     

1.a. Lime Softening     

1.b. Lime-Soda Ash Softening     

1.c. Caustic Soda Softening     

1.d. Lime-Caustic Soda Softening     

1.e. Stabilization of Softened Water     

1.f. Computation of Alkalinity Added by Common Water Treatment Chemicals     

2. Ion Exchange Softening     

2.a. Types of Synthetic IX Resins     

2.b. Operation of IX Processes     

Computations in IX Operation     

SPECIFIC WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES QUESTIONS

Introduction to Water Distribution

Upon completion of this course, learners will be able to:

Define…

✓ the purpose and design considerations for water distribution systems

List…

✓ pressure requirements for various flow conditions

✓ velocity requirements under normal and flushing operations

✓ factors for determining water quantity requirements

✓ regulations guiding water quality requirements

✓ major components of a distribution system

Describe…

✓ piping systems

✓ types of pipe materials

✓ water distribution appurtenances

✓ types of pumps encountered in water systems

Calculate…

✓ velocity and velocity head

✓ pressure and pressure head

✓ elevation head

✓ frictional head loss

✓ water horsepower

✓ brake horsepower

✓ motor horsepower

✓ pump efficiency

✓ pumping cost

✓ amount of disinfectant required for disinfection

Use…

✓ pump performance curves

A. Purpose and Design Considerations for Water Distribution Systems     

1. Quantity Requirements     

2. Pressure Requirements     

3. Velocity Requirements     

4. Water Quality Requirements     

5. Piping Systems     

6. Types of Pipe Materials     

B. Appurtenances     

1. Fire Hydrants     

2. Valves and Uses of Valves     

3. Service Connections and Meters     

C. Introduction to Hydraulics     

1. Water Flow in Pipes     

1.a. Pressure     

1.b. Pressure Head     

1.c. Velocity     

1.d. Velocity head     

1.e. Elevation head     

1.f. Friction head     

2. Pumping     

2.a. Pump Performance     

2.b. Pump Characteristic Curve     

D. Flushing of Water Mains     

1. Flushing Methods     

E. Disinfection and Bacteriological Testing of Water Mains     

1. Disinfection     

2. Bacteriological Testing     

INTRODUCTION TO WATER DISTRIBUTION QUESTIONS

Course Content

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About Instructor

Water Treatment Instructor

This instructor has over twenty-five years of experience in the water industry. He was also a college adjunct instructor teaching water treatment classes.

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Course Includes

  • 9 Lessons
  • 47 Topics
  • 9 Quizzes
  • Course Certificate